Write a brief critical synopsis of each journal, book, etc.

Write a brief critical synopsis of each journal, book, etc. on your topic. 


In your annotated bibliography

 You should have a minimum of 18 sources. (Some references are already provided in the attached documents.  Just need to put it in the below format)  Provide an APA formatted references (this should look like what you would include in a normal reference section.)  Summarize the source and discuss the research study that was conducted and what the findings were.  Assess the source and discuss how useful it is and how it compares with other sources in your paper.  Reflect on how the source will be useful to you in your Literature Review. How does it help to shape your argument and how are you using it to shape your writing?  

Each annotation should look like:

1. Author (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Vol no(issue). Pg to pg., URL or doi 2. In your summary, you will begin with a discussion of the research question the study is attempting to answer. You will summarize the research that was conducted and the specific findings that were uncovered. You will then provide a summary of what this means for the topic. 3. Next, you will discuss how the source compares with other sources in your paper and how useful is the source in attributing to your writing. 4. Finally, you will discuss how the source is useful in your Literature Review You will need to be specific on why it is important to use and exactly how you will use it in your writing to shape your arguments. 

  • LiteratureReviewAbstract_FinalDraft.docx

  • LiteratureReviewOutline_FinalDraft.docx

  • LiteratureReview_FinalDraft.docx


Literature Review Abstract

Sha-Nicca White

School of Business Liberty University

BUSI 610 – Organizational Design and Structure (B07)

Sha-Nicca A. White (ID # L29442727)

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Sha-Nicca. A. White

Email: [email protected]


This literature review carefully delves into chaos theory's applications in organizational design, underscoring its utility in decoding the complex dynamics of modern enterprises. Originating from mathematical analyses of non-linear systems, chaos theory provides a framework for identifying predictable patterns within the unpredictable behavior of organizational processes. This analysis explores chaos theory's fundamental tenets and their implications for enhancing strategic management and organizational adaptability, emphasizing companies' need to maneuver through a fluid business landscape.

Faced with rapid technological advancements, global interconnectedness, and shifting consumer patterns, modern organizations recognize the need for adaptive structures capable of managing volatility. Scholarly contributions by Ganz (2023) and Keyes and Benavides (2018) highlight chaos theory's potential to inform the design and decision-making processes that underpin organizational resilience and flexibility. Embracing chaos theory principles enables entities to transform uncertainty into a springboard for innovation, encouraging a culture that values agility and responsiveness to change.

The review also addresses how chaos theory can be instrumental in redefining traditional efficiency and effectiveness metrics, advocating for a stakeholder-centric view that accommodates the complex interplay of organizational ecosystems. It examines historical shifts in organizational design, drawing from classical management theories to the present-day application of chaos-inspired frameworks. The discourse expands to consider the role of leadership in fostering an environment that encourages inventive thinking and strategic risk-taking, aligned with the chaotic nature of contemporary business operations.

Conclusively, the literature review calls for organizations to adopt a nuanced, chaos-informed approach to strategy and planning. This suggests that such a perspective is vital for leaders aiming to navigate the unpredictable corporate terrain. It posits chaos theory as an invaluable asset in promoting a conducive environment for strategic innovation and foresight, essential for the sustained success of organizations in the complex and rapidly evolving global market.


Ganz, S. C. (2023). Conflict, chaos, and the art of Institutional Design. Organization Science. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2023.1662

Keyes, L. M., & Benavides, A. D. (2018). Chaos theory, uncertainty, and organizational learning. International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, 21(4), 226–241. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijotb-04-2018-0050



Literature Review Outline: Chaos Theory in Organizational Design

Sha-Nicca White

School of Business Liberty University

BUSI 610 – Organizational Design and Structure (B07)

Sha-Nicca A. White (ID # L29442727)

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Sha-Nicca. A. White

Email: [email protected]

Literature Review Outline


i. Contemporary organizations embody multifaceted systems, necessitating strategic agility amidst an ever-evolving commercial milieu. 

ii. The advent of chaos theory has become quintessential in deciphering and orchestrating the intricacies inherent within organizational frameworks. 

iii. Originating from sophisticated mathematical evaluations of intricate systems, chaos theory elucidates the emergent patterns nested within the seemingly stochastic organizational dynamics. 

iv. This scholarly review delves into the quintessential tenets of chaos theory and its ramifications for the architectural design of organizations, scrutinizing historical impediments and the prevailing structural determinants influencing adaptability.


I. Application of Chaos Theory in Contemporary Organizational Conundrums

i. Modern enterprises are tasked with maneuvering through the labyrinthine challenges posed by swift technological evolution, extensive global interconnectedness, and the transitory nature of consumer preferences.

ii. The call for organizational frameworks that embody adaptiveness and are equipped to navigate turbulence has become more pronounced.

iii. Academic inquiries, such as those by Ganz (2023) and Keyes with Benavides (2018), have probed into the role of chaos theory in steering institutional architecture, fostering a culture of learning, and refining decision-making processes to augment organizational resilience and flexibility.

II. Embracing Chaos Theory to Mitigate Organizational Adversities

i. Chaos theory propounds a paradigm shift, urging entities to reinterpret uncertainty not as a stumbling block but as a catalyst for innovation and advancement.

ii. Adopting chaos theoretical principles encourages corporations to nurture agility and robustness, capacitating them to flourish within fluctuant contexts.

iii. Malka (2021) illuminates the premise that internal conflicts, when examined through the chaos theoretical perspective, can act as precursors of constructive transformation and progress rather than being deemed merely disruptive elements.

iv. In this epoch marked by brisk technological transformations, extensive global linkages, and mutable consumer expectations, the imperative for adaptive structures is paramount for organizations immersed in these volatile climates. Studies such as those conducted by Ganz (2023) and Keyes alongside Benavides (2018) are pivotal in exploring the utility of chaos theory in fortifying organizational resilience.

III. Chaos Theory and Organizational Structure

i. The application of chaos theory posits substantial repercussions for conceptualizing organizational structure, interrogating the established paradigms of organic versus mechanistic models.

ii. The discourse around the dichotomy of organic and mechanical structures, alongside the rise of blended organizational designs, signifies the pervasive impact of chaos theory on structural, organizational strategy.

iii. Quantitative analyses by scholars such as Altinay and Arici (2022) and Altinay with Kozak (2021) exemplify how principles derived from chaos theory contribute to the crafting of organizational architectures that are both agile and capable of excelling amidst disruptive market forces.

IV. Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Stakeholder Approach

i. Chaos theory introduces a novel lens to assess organizational performance metrics, underscoring the evolving interpretations of efficiency and effectiveness.

ii. The theory promotes a stakeholder-oriented perspective that recognizes the symbiotic nature of organizational ecosystems and contemplates the myriad of stakeholder interests.

iii. In their analytical narrative, de Souza & Kuniyoshi (2020) elucidate how chaos theory repudiates the conventional metrics of efficiency and effectiveness, advocating for organizations to embrace a more integrative set of measures that capture the intricate interplay of elements within their operational environments.

V. Historical Perspectives on Organizational Design

i. The progression of organizational design mirrors the transformative societal shifts, technological advancements, and economic developments.

ii. Daft (2010) chronicles the historical progression of organizational architecture, progressing from the foundational principles of classical management to the nuanced, chaos theory-informed frameworks of the modern era.

iii. Oestreicher (2007) explores the evolution from static, deterministic frameworks to more malleable, responsive configurations necessitated by the intricate nature of contemporary commerce.

iv. An examination of historical viewpoints provides invaluable context to comprehend the impact of chaos theory in sculpting the modern organizational form and strategic direction.

VI. Organizational Configurations

i. The comparison of organic versus mechanistic organizational frameworks accentuates the inherent opposition in conceptualizing organizational design.

ii. Malka (2021) delineates organic structures' superior agility and adaptability, particularly in their suitability for dynamic environments fraught with indeterminacy and fluidity.

iii. Deliberations on the emergence of hybrid organizational forms highlight the strategic imperative of integrating diverse structural attributes to foster resilience and adaptability.

iv. Chaos theory renders critical perspectives on the fine-tuning of organizational configurations to proficiently steer through the labyrinth of complex and unforeseen business terrains.

VII. Role of Leadership in Chaos-Informed Management

i. Leadership assumes an integral function in executing chaos-informed managerial methodologies within corporate entities.

ii. Leaders proficient in chaos theory utilize its precepts to cultivate an organizational ethos characterized by adaptability, pioneering innovation, and continuous education.

iii. Pourasad et al. (2021) endorse leadership dynamics that encourage experimental initiatives, endorse risk engagement, and champion decentralized decision-making processes congruent with the agility and reactivity central to chaos theory.

iv. Expanding scholarly inquiry into leadership's efficacy in deploying chaos and theory-inspired tactics will bolster comprehension and inform their pragmatic adoption in organizational environments.

VIII. Marketing and Competitiveness in the Lens of Chaos Theory

i. Altinay & Arici (2022) explore the transformation of hospitality services marketing, suggesting that chaos theory can inform more responsive and adaptable marketing strategies.

ii. Altinay & Kozak (2021) revisit the concept of destination competitiveness through chaos theory, proposing the Butterfly Competitiveness Model that underscores the sensitivity of tourism markets to initial conditions and the nonlinear dynamics of competitive advantage.

IX. Chaos Theory in Relation to Organizational Learning and Innovation

i. Keyes & Benavides (2018) delve into the relationship between chaos theory, uncertainty, and organizational learning, emphasizing the potential for chaos to stimulate learning and innovation within organizations.

ii. De Souza et al. (2021) compare chaos theory with the innovation process, highlighting the potential for chaotic dynamics to drive innovative practices and solutions.

X. Digital Transformation and Chaos Theory

i. Pourasad et al. (2021) present a novel algorithm for digital image encryption based on chaos theory, demonstrating the practical applications of chaotic dynamics in enhancing digital security. This principle can be extended to safeguarding organizational data and intellectual property.

a. The implications of this algorithm extend beyond encryption, suggesting that principles of chaos theory can be applied to various aspects of digital transformation, such as cybersecurity measures, data analytics, and complex system management, ensuring robustness in the face of digital vulnerabilities.

ii. Pourasad et al. (2021) also theorize that the unpredictable yet deterministic nature of chaos theory can provide a strategic approach to digital transformation, allowing organizations to harness chaotic models to predict trends and mitigate potential digital risks in a rapidly evolving technological landscape.

XI. Theoretical Foundations and Historical Evolution of Chaos Theory

i. Oestreicher (2007) provides a comprehensive history of chaos theory, offering foundational knowledge that can enhance the understanding of its application in organizational theory and design.

ii. Zein Eddine (2021) reviews the contemporary organizational reality through the prism of chaos theory, offering insights into how organizations can navigate the complexity of modern business environments.


i. The escalating integration of chaos theory into organizational configuration signifies a pivotal shift in the conceptualization of strategic enterprise management. 

ii. Entities should propagate an environment that is receptive to creative ideation and judicious risk engagement, thereby precipitating the genesis of innovative resolutions. 

iii. Prospective research initiatives explore the tangible integration of chaos theory within distinct sectoral contexts and scrutinize the influential function of leadership in orchestrating chaos-informed managerial paradigms, thus amplifying the scholarly dialogue surrounding the deployment of chaos theory in organizational construct.


Altinay, L., & Arici, H. E. (2022). Transformation of the Hospitality Services Marketing Structure: A chaos theory perspective. Journal of Services Marketing, 36(5), 658–673. https://doi.org/10.1108/jsm-01-2021-0017

Altinay, L., & Kozak, M. (2021). Revisiting destination competitiveness through chaos theory: The butterfly competitiveness model. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 49, 331–340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2021.10.004

Daft, R. L. (2021). Organization Theory & Design (13th ed.). Cengage Learning.

de Souza, C. L., Kuniyoshi, M. S., & Freitas, A. B. (2021). Comparative study between chaos theory and the innovation process. Pensamento & Realidade, 35(3), 129–138. https://doi.org/10.23925/2237-4418.2020v35i3p129-138

Ganz, S. C. (2023). Conflict, chaos, and the art of Institutional Design. Organization Science. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2023.1662

Keyes, L. M., & Benavides, A. D. (2018). Chaos theory, uncertainty, and organizational learning. International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, 21(4), 226–241. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijotb-04-2018-0050

Malka, S. C. (2021). On the blessings that chaos brings: A closer look at conflict through the lens of Chaos Theory. SSRN Electronic Journal, 7(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4255243

Oestreicher, C. (2007). A history of chaos theory. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 9(3), 279–289. https://doi.org/10.31887/dcns.2007.9.3/coestreicher

Pourasad, Y., Ranjbarzadeh, R., & Mardani, A. (2021). A new algorithm for Digital Image Encryption based on Chaos Theory. Entropy, 23(3), 341. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23030341

Zein Eddine, I. R. (2021). Contemporary organizational reality through the eyes of chaos theory: A literature review. BAU Journal – Health and Wellbeing, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.54729/2789-8288.1146



Literature Review: Chaos Theory in Organizational Design

Sha-Nicca White

School of Business Liberty University

BUSI 610 – Organizational Design and Structure (B07)

Sha-Nicca A. White (ID # L29442727)

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Sha-Nicca. A. White

Email: [email protected]


The literature review critically engages with the domain of chaos theory, elucidating its profound implications for the architecture and functionality of organizational structures. At the heart of chaos theory lies the exploration of complex systems, meticulously dissecting their sensitivity to initial conditions and the emergence of discernible patterns within seemingly stochastic phenomena. This theoretical framework posits that contrary to the disorderly facade, there is an intrinsic order and pattern to systems traditionally perceived as random and chaotic. Subverting the orthodoxy, chaos theory posits that chaotic systems, despite their apparent unpredictability, harbor nuanced, discernible patterns that can be rigorously analyzed and leveraged across a spectrum of fields, including but not limited to organizational design and strategic management. This scholarly inquiry endeavors to provide an exhaustive analysis of chaos theory's applicability in interpreting organizational behavior, decision-making processes, and the quintessential dynamics of modern entities. The aspiration is to furnish a nuanced comprehension of how incorporating chaos theory principles can equip organizations to adeptly navigate and prosper within the capricious and often tumultuous terrains of the contemporary corporate milieu.

Leveraging chaos theory within organizational contexts is predicated on its potential to decode the complex interplay of factors that govern organizational behavior. The theory's emphasis on nonlinearity and feedback loops offers a robust framework for understanding how organizations respond to external and internal stimuli, often in ways that are not immediately apparent or linear in causation. By acknowledging the fractal nature of organizational dynamics—wherein similar patterns recur at various scales—leaders and managers can better anticipate and respond to emerging trends and disruptions. Furthermore, chaos theory's acknowledgment of the 'butterfly effect'—where small changes can have significant consequences—underscores the importance of strategic foresight and meticulous attention to the organizational environment. Through this lens, decision-making is viewed as a delicate balance between adaptability and predictability, requiring a nuanced approach sensitive to the initial conditions and potential bifurcation points that could lead to vastly different outcomes. This review synthesizes empirical and theoretical contributions that delineate the application of chaos theory to organizational studies, illustrating its relevance and potential to enhance resilience and innovation in a landscape characterized by volatility and complexity.

Chaos Theory in Organizational Design


Organizations are multifaceted constructs that perpetually strive to devise strategic configurations to accommodate the fluidity of the commercial ecosystem. The ascendancy of chaos theory has been marked by its utility in dissecting and mastering organizational frameworks' intrinsic convolution and capriciousness. Originating from the mathematical study of unpredictable and complex systems, chaos theory provides a vantage point for scrutinizing the behavior of such systems, accentuating the pronounced impact of initial conditions and the discernible deterministic patterns that emerge amidst ostensibly stochastic processes. This reconceptualization of randomness challenges the notion of utter disorder, revealing instead a tapestry woven with intricate structures and mathematical constants that govern the ebbs and flows of dynamic systems. Through this literature review, we traverse the core tenets of chaos theory, extrapolating their relevance to organizational architecture. The discourse navigates through the tribulations of contemporary structures, offers a retrospective glance at historical trajectories, and elucidates pivotal structural elements that sway organizational design and adaptability.

In the intricate landscape of hospitality and tourism, Altinay and Arici (2022) provide a compelling argument for applying chaos theory to comprehend and navigate the complexities of service marketing structures. Their work posits that the hospitality industry's marketing paradigms are undergoing a significant transformation, which is increasingly dynamic and sensitive to initial conditions—characteristics indicative of chaotic systems. By adopting a chaos theory perspective, they argue that marketers can better understand and respond to the unpredictable variations that influence customer behaviors and preferences. This approach enables a more nuanced appreciation of the nonlinear interactions within the hospitality sector, facilitating the development of more agile and responsive marketing strategies.

Complementing this perspective, Altinay and Kozak (2021) further explore chaos theory's applicability to destination competitiveness in the tourism industry. Their 'butterfly competitiveness model' underscores the delicate interplay of variables that can lead to large-scale changes in destination attractiveness and competitiveness. This model illuminates how small, often overlooked factors can disproportionately affect a destination's appeal, echoing the sensitive dependence on initial conditions that is a hallmark of chaos theory. Together, these studies underscore chaos theory's valuable insights in decoding the complexities of marketing and competitiveness within the volatile realms of hospitality and tourism management.


Addressing Modern Organizational Challenges through Chaos Theory

Current Challenges in Organizational Design

Decoding and addressing the diverse and complex challenges inherent in modern organizational ecosystems is critical to crafting structures emblematic of durability and skill. Within the whirlwind of the contemporary commercial sphere, entities are compelled to maneuver through an abyss of volatility, propelled by rapid technological evolution, the escalation of global interconnectedness, and the fluidity of consumer inclinations. The imperative to engineer and sustain organizational infrastructures capable of enduring but flourishing in the face of these relentless fluctuations stands as a cardinal quest for academics and industry connoisseurs. Through this lens, the pursuit of knowledge and strategic innovation in organizational design becomes not merely academic but a vital, applied science aimed at equipping entities to prosper in an era of ceaseless transformation.

The intricate relationship between chaos theory and organizational design is elucidated through a synthesis of scholarly works investigating the underpinnings and applications of this dynamic theory within the context of institutional structures and processes. Ganz (2023) explores the nuanced art of institutional design amidst conflict and chaos, suggesting that the unpredictability inherent in chaotic systems can inform more resilient and adaptable organizational frameworks. This perspective aligns with the insights of Keyes and Benavides (2018), who reflect on the lessons learned from the Ebola crisis in Dallas, advocating for a chaos theory-informed approach to organizational learning and decision-making in the face of uncertainty.

Moreover, de Souza and Kuniyoshi (2020) offer a comparative analysis between chaos theory and innovation processes, highlighting the potential for chaos theory to enhance our understanding of the innovation trajectory within complex organizational systems. Their work suggests that recognizing the chaotic elements of innovation can lead to more sophisticated and robust models of organizational change. In tandem, Zein Eddine (2021) reviews the contemporary organizational reality through the lens of chaos theory, providing a comprehensive overview of how this theory can be applied to dissect and navigate the complexities of modern organizational life. Together, these scholarly contributions underscore the significance of chaos theory as a powerful analytic and diagnostic tool for designing both flexible and robust organizations in the face of an ever-evolving and uncertain global business environment.

Chaos Theory as a Response to Organizational Challenges

Chaos Theory, with its foundation in nonlinear dynamics, offers a distinctive lens through which to interpret and navigate organizational complexities. Malka (2021) posits that this paradigm encourages entities to reconceptualize uncertainty and apparent disorder as conduits for innovation and advancement rather than impediments. Through this framework, organizations are compelled to cultivate agility, foreseeing and swiftly adapting to the vicissitudes of their environment, aware that even minute variations can precipitate profound impacts. This approach aids enterprises in reconfiguring unpredictability into strategic advantages, fostering a milieu of perpetual adaptation and learning. Consequently, the integration of Chaos Theory principles into organizational planning emerges as a tactical maneuver to counter the contemporary business arena's intricacies, equipping corporations to endure and flourish amidst relentless flux and ambiguity.Top of FormBottom of Form

Chaos Theory and Organizational Structure

Structural Dimensions and Contingency Factors

Within organizational theory, the structural dimensions—encompassing hierarchy, the distribution of authority, and the degree of formalization—are instrumental in navigating an organization's intricate environments. Chaos theory calls into question the efficacy of conventional, inflexible organizational models, advocating for a paradigm shift towards more malleable and adaptive structures. Such a shift is particularly pertinent in the current era of swift and unpredictable business climate changes, where static frameworks often struggle to match the pace of innovation and transformation. Altinay and Arici (2022) underscore the alignment of organic organizational structures with the tenets of chaos theory. These structures are characterized by agility, decentralized decision-making, and an accentuated reliance on horizontal communication channels. They are expressly designed to accommodate unexpected market fluctuations, technological advancements, and consumer behavioral shifts, enabling organizations to realign their strategic orientation rapidly and efficiently.

Altinay and Arici (2022) and Altinay and Kozak (2021) converge on applying chaos theory in the hospitality industry, asserting its efficacy in unveiling the underlying market dynamics and destination competitiveness patterns. The former delineates the transformational impact of this theory on service marketing structures, advocating for adaptive strategies in an industry buffeted by fluctuating consumer preferences and global trends. The latter introduces the 'butterfly competitiveness model,' illustrating how minor strategic alterations can precipitate significant shifts in a destination's appeal. Together, these studies highlight chaos theory's role as a critical analytical framework for developing agile marketing strategies and enhancing destination attractiveness in the inherently unpredictable hospitality sector.

Contingency Factors in Chaotic Environments

In the discourse of organizational design, evaluating contingency factors such as organizational size, technological infrastructure, and environmental volatility is paramount. Altinay and Kozak (2021) suggest that the scale of the enterprise influences its structural proclivities; smaller firms often gravitate towards organic systems that foster agility and ingenuity, whereas larger organizations may grapple with the inertia of entrenched bureaucracies. The nature of the technology employed can further enable or constrain such organizational flexibility. Organic designs, characterized by their adaptability, are more apt to flourish in turbulent environments where change is perpetual. Chaos theory thus compels leaders to critically reflect on these contingencies, advocating for a malleable and insightful approach to organizational structure that is capable of not only enduring but also capitalizing on the tumultuous nature of the contemporary business landscape, as Keyes and Benavides (2018) underscore.

Ganz (2023)


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